Deina Abdelkader is an Associate Professor in the Political Science Department, a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University (2016-current), previously a Visiting Scholar at Alwaleed Islamic Studies Program, Harvard University (2014-2016). She is the author of Social Justice in Islam (2000) and Islamic Activists: The Anti-Enlightenment Democrats (2011). She has also authored a number of articles, including “Coercion, Peace and the Issue of Jihad” in the Digest of Middle East Studies, and a book chapter, “Modernity, Islam and Religious Activism”, in The New Global Order and the Middle East. Abdelkader served as the chair of the Religion and International Relations Book Award for the Religion and International Relations Section of the International Studies Association (2015), and she is one of two women on the North American Muslim Jurisprudential Council. Abdelkader is a co-founder and co-director of the Cohort for the Study of Islam and International Relations (COIRIS). Her areas of foci are: democratic transitions in the Muslim World, and Islamic Political Activism.
Democratic Transitions: Are There Recipes For Success ?
Hypothesis: In transitioning to democracy, rationalists assume that either the masses or the elites bring about change. This paper hypothesizes that there is a causal relation between the actors involved in social change and the end product that is: transitioning to democracy and whether revolution from below or from above is more likely to bring about democratic transition. By examining Pacting Theory as a democratic transition theory, this paper will analyze the role of the military in transitioning to democratization in Egypt. The interplay of the military powers and relinquishing those powers to a civilian government will have implications for social movements theory and the approaches to democratic transition theory.